This Popular Science Article explains circuits that can change depending on its intended purpose. While it doesn't say anywhere int he article if it was based on anything in nature, it seems clear to me that this simple concept of adaptation was taken from almost everyplace in nature, from our brain cells that grown more connections based on knowledge, to chameleons and octopi which change their physical form for different uses. Having less rigid technology seems to be the way of the future, by mimicking those that have excelled for years, we're finally on our way to making worthwhile advances.
Also, this is cool:
Ecosphere: Amazon: Small Ecosphere